Glyphosate: A Root Cause of Chronic Inflammation?

By Zach Bush, MD

 The weed killer Glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, was first patented and introduced by Monsanto for agricultural use in 1974. Later, it was marketed to consumers as a household herbicide. It is also sprayed in staggering quantities on most commercially-grown staple crops, including wheat, corn, soybeans, beets, cotton, canola, and alfalfa. Since last year, when the World Health Organization classified glyphosate as a “probable human carcinogen,” there has been a lot of media coverage on the potential health risks associated with the use of this herbicide.

 Glyphosate as a Desiccant

What many people do not know is that since 1992, glyphosate has been widely used as a “ripening agent” or desiccant on wheat and many other grains. This application stresses or kills the plants, which accelerates drying and speeds the ripening of the grain immediately before harvest.

 Safer than Salt? Not!

In 1996, New York’s attorney general sued Monsanto over the company’s use of “false and misleading advertising” about RoundUp®. That case resulted in Monsanto agreeing to stop calling Roundup “biodegradable” and to pull ads claiming that Roundup was “safer than table salt”, “practically nontoxic”, and “stayed where you put it”.

According to a recent report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the World Health Organization’s France-based cancer research arm, Glyphosate was “classified as probably carcinogenic to humans”. The state of California has also moved to classify the herbicide as a probable carcinogen. A growing body of research is documenting the detrimental effect of glyphosate as an endocrine disruptor. Glyphosate is dumped on us at the rate of 300 million pounds per year, almost one pound for every person in the US, according to an article in Newsweek. Estimates are that 75% of rainwater is contaminated by glyphosate, as reported by EcoWatch. The US Geological Service reports that more than 88,000 tons of glyphosate was used in the US in 2007, which is an enormous increase from the 11,000 tons used in 1992. Since the advent of “super weeds,” the use of glyphosate has risen significantly. Reuters reported that researchers found glyphosate residue in an astounding 41 out of 69 honey samples, 10 out of 28 samples of soy sauce, 3 out of 18 breast milk samples, and 6 out of 40 infant formula samples.

 Tight-Junction Damage

In the intestines, glyphosate is a profound zonulin stimulator. It damages the epithelial tight-junction tissue on contact, weakening the barriers that protect us on the inside from the barrage of other environmental toxins that we are exposed to. Injury to the tight-junction membrane in the gut can lead to intestinal permeability—also known as “leaky gut”.

The zonulin production initiated by glyphosate exposure quickly becomes systemic; injury to the tight-junction membrane in the brain can result in a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and a host of neurological symptoms. With the collapse of the tight-junction firewalls, toxins leak out through the gut wall, the immune system breaks down, and the toxins can attack every organ in the body.

Just behind that microscopically thin layer of protection of the endothelial cells that separate you from the outside world is the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue (GALT). The GALT is a layer of immune cells that are vigilantly standing guard to address any breach in your firewall. It is estimated that 60%-70% of the immune system and more than 80% of antibodies that the immune system produces originate in the GALT.

The acute inflammatory response becomes chronic inflammation as the system is overwhelmed with toxins from the outside world. The gliadin protein in gluten also stimulates release of zonulin. William Davis, MD, author of Wheat Belly, claims that, “When gliadin triggers zonulin release, intestinal tight junctions are disrupted, and unwanted proteins…gain entry to the bloodstream. Immune-activating lymphocytes, such as T-cells, are then triggered to begin an inflammatory process against various ‘self’ proteins, thus initiating…conditions such as celiac disease, thyroid disease, joint diseases, and asthma.”

 Glyphosate & GMOs

Genetically-engineered or genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) are live organisms whose genetic components have been artificially manipulated through creating unstable combinations of plant, animal, bacteria, and even viral genes that do not occur in nature or through traditional crossbreeding methods.

In the US, 88% of the corn crop, 93% of the soybean crop, 90% of sugar beets (accounting for 54% of US sugar production), and 94% of cotton are genetically-engineered to be able to survive the application of glyphosate. Consequently, they can be sprayed heavily with glyphosate to control weeds and simplify harvest.

How to Best Avoid Glyphosate

Here are some recommendations I give to my patients for avoiding exposure to glyphosate:

  • Eat as low on the food chain as possible: This is good advice for a number of reasons; avoiding glyphosate is a big one!
  • Obviously, avoid all GMO foods: including processed and packaged foods containing non-organic corn, soybean, and sugar in all their myriad varieties. Organic means non-GMO. There are many non-organic packaged foods now bearing the non-GMO certification.
  • Choose vinegar as a home weed killer: Don’t use RoundUp®!

Restoring Tight-Junction Integrity

To counterbalance the consequences of glyphosate, Biomic Sciences has developed a product called Restore™, a liquid mineral supplement that supports tight-junction integrity. This scientifically-proven, plant-derived mineral supplement was designed to provide support and protection to the intestinal walls. We have been conducting a number of interesting studies on the effects of glyphosate. One of them, which will be published later this year in a peer-reviewed journal, shows that glyphosate and the gliadin protein found in gluten appear to have a synergistic negative effect.

Previously, our team had been thinking glyphosate had the same effect on epithelial tissue as gliadin, only more severe. It now appears that the combination of gliadin and glyphosate does much more damage than either one alone. Our lab results have shown that the synergy between gluten and glyphosate decrease the efficacy of the tight-junction barrier by an additional 52% versus either gluten or glyphosate alone.

Restore is a new generation, earth-derived supplement that promotes an optimal gut environment. It is not a probiotic or a prebiotic; rather, it is a carbon-rich, alkaline liquid, with lignite derived trace organics and essential trace amino acids. Prebiotics also provide support to the injured gut, but they do not work directly on the “tight junctions” in the gut wall that lead to leaking toxins. Restore™ actually strengthens the protective wall in the gut lining to ensure that damaging toxins do not leak through and harm the immune system. Restore has great potential to improve tight-junction integrity and has produced medically significant outcomes. Restore™ your gut and digestive health with Biomic Sciences!

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

March 8, 2017 at 10:33 am Leave a comment

Ester-C® More Than Just Seasonal Support

By Susan Hazels Mitmesser, PhD Senior Director of Nutrition & Scientific Affairs, American Health®/Ester-C®

What makes Ester-C® different from other vitamin C preparations?

Ester-C® is a unique, patented form of vitamin C that is non-acidic. What makes it so different is the way the product is created. During the manufacturing process, ascorbic acid is neutralized to make calcium ascorbate, which also contains the same vitamin C metabolites your body naturally produces. This process is water-based and free of chemical solvents.

Metabolites make it easier for vitamin C molecules to be retained by your white blood cells, which are an important part of your immune system.* As a result, they greatly enhance the retention of vitamin C levels in these immune cells for up to 24 hours.*

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it flushes out of our system. To maintain the levels that our bodies require, we need to ensure that what we may lose throughout the day is continually replenished. Unlike traditional vitamin C ascorbic acid, Ester-C® stays in your immune system all day and all night—so you get 24-hour immune support and potent antioxidant activity with just a once daily, 1,000 mg serving.*

Does Ester-C® Effervescent have additional ingredients besides vitamin C?

Vitamin C supplements are typically consumed as tablets or capsules, but some individuals have a difficult time swallowing them or just prefer an alternative form. Ester-C® Effervescent Powder Packets mix well with water for easy consumption and are Non-GMO, 100% Vegetarian, and Gluten-Free. Each packet delivers 1,000 mg of Ester-C® plus B vitamins to promote energy metabolism and electrolytes to aid in hydration.* It is also available in three delicious 100% natural fruit flavors—Orange, Lemon Lime, and Raspberry. One packet a day is all you need for 24-hour immune support.*

How do they work together to support your health?

In the human body, vitamin C participates in collagen production.* It is also a key antioxidant that helps cell and blood components fight harmful oxidative damage from free radicals.* By these mechanisms, vitamin C sustains normal body processes, including the maintenance of normal tissue repair functions and cardiovascular health, as well as immune system support.* B vitamins are important for cellular energy metabolism and electrolytes help maintain fluid balance.*

What systems does Vitamin C affect in the body?

Vitamin C affects many important functions throughout the body and it is the primary antioxidant in our blood.* It scavenges free radicals produced by normal biological functions to keep these radicals from damaging other parts of the body.* Vitamin C also works to regenerate vitamin E, which is the primary antioxidant in cell membranes.* It helps the cells fight free radical damage and facilitates the absorption of non-heme iron and iron from plant sources.*

In addition, vitamin C is important for collagen production.* We usually think of the skin when it comes to collagen, but it is also an important part of our blood vessels.* Arteries have to be able to expand and contract with the force of the heart pumping blood and collagen maintains pliability/elasticity for everyday circulatory or cardiovascular health.* Furthermore, collagen is important for bone quality.* We often hear about bone density being important, but the strength of bones is also critical. Collagen makes up the foundation of bone, which holds minerals like calcium together.* Other proteins besides collagen, such as carnitine, which shuttles fat into the area of the cell so it can be converted to energy are also directly impacted by vitamin C.

What kinds of research have been done on Ester-C®?

Numerous cellular, animal, and human studies have been conducted on Ester-C®. We’ve measured collagen production and uptake of vitamin C in cells with and without metabolites; bioavailability and the treatment of scurvy with Ester-C® in animals; and the uptake, retention, and side effects of vitamin C in humans.

We constantly evaluate the science surrounding vitamin C and the health benefits of this unique compound. We recently completed an additional study reconfirming Ester-C®’s 24-hour immune support.* Furthermore, we are in the planning stages of designing another Ester-C® study in which additional clinical endpoints and benefits will be identified. Our goal at American Health®, the parent company of Ester-C®, is to continually contribute to the pool of vitamin C science, while serving as a valuable and reliable resource for consumers.

Who can benefit most from this product?

Because humans lack the enzyme, gulanolactone oxidase, required to synthesize vitamin C from glucose, vitamin C must be replenished daily via food or supplements. As a water-soluble essential nutrient, vitamin C is not made or stored in the body and must be consumed by everyone, every day. There are also a few segments of the population that may have an increased need. These groups include people who avoid whole plant foods, smokers who need more of the antioxidant, and those who take proton pump inhibitor medications for acid reflux, which can inhibit the absorption of vitamin C from the digestive tract. A supplement like Ester-C®, which delivers 24-hour immune support with just one daily serving of 1000 mg, can ensure optimum vitamin C intake for anyone concerned about nutritional adequacy.* As always, please consult your doctor if you are taking any medications or have any other concerns.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

February 14, 2017 at 11:12 am Leave a comment

Clean Up Your Drinking Water

By Dr. Roy M. Speiser, V.P. of CWR Environmental

We live in a toxic world, where daily exposure to dangerous contaminants in our air and water creates an accumulative affect on our health. Many disorders our society experiences originate early in life and may be triggered by these pollutants. For example, when pregnant women ingest contaminated water and food, the toxicity negatively affects the health of the fetus and forms an early basis for future health issues.

A recent analysis of government statistics by researchers at the British charity “Children with Cancer UK”, found that the cancer rate in young people has risen 40% over the past 16 years. Dr. Denis Henshaw, a professor at Bristol University, stated, “If one looks at cancers, such as childhood leukemia, there is no doubt that environmental factors are playing a big role.”

For decades, toxic waste sites and irresponsible industries have discharged chemicals and heavy metals, which are seeping into our drinking water supply. Additionally, agricultural runoff of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer, plus pharmaceutical dumping by hospitals and drug companies have contributed to hundreds of toxic contaminants that continually permeate our drinking water supply. An ongoing Associated Press investigation researching pharmaceuticals in drinking water, detected 46 different medications in the US drinking water.  This affects over 41 million people that are drinking water contaminated with small quantities of pharmaceuticals—including antibiotics, anticonvulsant, mood stabilizers, sex hormones, sunscreen agents, and other medications. Even though they are present in trace amounts, scientists are concerned that ingestion over decades will have significant health consequences, especially in high-risk individuals.

Many other scientific studies have documented the negative health impacts associated with consuming toxic contaminants, such as chlorine and chloramine by-products, fluoride, and lead. Chlorine by-products, such as THMs are listed as Cancer Group B carcinogens by the EPA. In addition, human studies have reported associations between THMs and bladder and colon cancer, miscarriage, birth defects, and low birth weight.

Flint, Michigan was the tip of the iceberg that focused attention on lead, which is commonly found in drinking water. According to a recent National Resource Defense Council study, elevated lead levels have been found in over 5,000 water systems, affecting 18 million people in the US. Over 3.9 million of these people are drinking water containing very high levels of lead, over 15 parts per billion, which is in violation of the Federal Lead Rule.

Lead is a neurotoxin and millions of children have been drinking water containing lead for years. Chronic lead ingestion can cause loss of memory, elevated blood pressure, reduction of fertility levels, and has been determined to be a probable cancer-causing agent.

Unfortunately, when you turn on your tap, the water you are drinking is not clean, healthy water; it contains a blend of toxic contaminants that have tainted our drinking water sources. Plus, chemicals that are added at the water treatment plants, including aluminum, chlorine, and fluoride; the unpleasant result is tap water that can only be described as a “toxic soup”.

In an attempt to drink clean water, millions of consumers are buying filters that are entry-level or minimally beneficial. These devices simply don’t have the capability to remove the whole range of toxic contaminants found in drinking water. At best, low level filters reduce small amounts of chlorine and lead, but they don’t remove fluoride, chloramine, pharmaceuticals, parasites, and heavy metals commonly found in drinking water. Also, these filters do not last very long. Most small filters are only tested for 100 gallons-or-less of water use and an average family consumes two to three gallons of water a day. That means that these small filters do not supply enough filtered water to last more than a few weeks. The best way to combat the consumption of “toxic soup” is by relying on larger, more powerful filters. A prime example is a new generation of filters, called MetalGonTM developed by CWR Environmental.

The new MetalGonTM filters are highly effective in removing a wide range of contaminants from drinking water. The filter has been tested to ANSI/NSF standards 42, 53, and 401—verifying that the MetalGonTM filter removes 99% of chloramine for up to 700 gallons and chlorine by 99% for up to 1,000 gallons of water.

Additionally, 92% of all forms of fluoride are removed for up to 300 gallons of water. Pharmaceuticals have also been tested under the new NSF standard 401 and the MetalGonTM filter reduced greater than 95% of 15 different pharmaceuticals, including acetaminophen, progesterone, ibuprofen, and common pharmaceuticals found in many water systems.

The new MetalGonTM filters are significantly better at reducing toxic contaminants than most because of the wide range of contaminants it is able to remove and the large volume of clean, safe water it produces. Anyone that already has a filter should obtain the new filter with MetalGonTM, which you are able to use in your current filtration system. If you don’t have a sink filter, you should definitely purchase the new AIO ULTRA Ceramic with MetalgonTM Filter Unit—now being offered at a special introductory price.

As a Water Quality Specialist and health practitioner for over 35 years, I would highly recommend that you upgrade to a safer, more effective water filtration system. Let CWR help you protect your health, improve the quality of your life, and make your water as pure as nature intended!

December 20, 2016 at 3:48 pm Leave a comment

Hintonia Latiflora—Herbal Rescue for High Blood Sugar

Submitted by Terry Naturally

Known as “copalchi” and sold in many marketplaces in Mexico and Central America, Hintonia latiflora is a tree that grows in the desert and has to withstand an intense climate to survive. Toughing out monsoon-like rainy seasons and scorching dry spells has created a powerful defense mechanism within the plant itself. The beneficial features of Hintonia are made stronger by its ability to survive and thrive in a difficult environment. While Hintonia has been traditionally recommended for diabetes and gastrointestinal complaints, it has shown some exciting clinical results on type 2 diabetes as well.

Impressive Clinical Results

In Europe, Hintonia latiflora has been clinically studied for over 60 years in relation to type 2 diabetes and has shown some impressive results. Early clinical work with the herb found that it was equal to or better than insulin in mild to moderate cases of diabetes. In later work, patients using insulin and taking Hintonia latiflora were able to dispense with using insulin altogether or switch from insulin to glibenclamide—a common drug that boosts the level of insulin produced by the pancreas. Ideally, nobody would have to be on a prescription drug, but over the years studies of Hintonia latiflora have shown that it can either replace medications or at the very least, make them much more effective.

Studies have shown Hintonia latiflora combined with key nutrients for blood sugar control can:

  • Lower A1C levels by 10%
  • Improve fasting and postprandial blood sugar by 23% and 24%, respectively
  • Balance total cholesterol and reduce triglyceride levels
  • Prevent hypoglycemia— undesirable drops in blood sugar
  • Reduce medication use—39% of patients reduced medication and some didn’t need it at all!

Why Does Hintonia Work?

Plants and plant extracts are complex and the reasons behind their benefits can be a challenge to unlock. However, scientists have been working diligently to discover the keys to Hintonia latiflora’s success. Hintonia bark contains compounds that help keep blood sugar levels stable. Clinical work with the ingredient has shown that it was so effective that individuals could reduce or entirely dispense with their insulin medication for type 2 diabetes. Hintonia is also an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, which is an enzyme that releases sugar from foods, particularly carbohydrates. Coutareagenin, a polyphenol found in the bark extracts, appears to be responsible for other blood sugar-controlling benefits. For the best results, look for an extract standardized for this compound. Hintonia is able to slow sugar metabolism, delaying the release of sugar in the bloodstream and keeping glucose levels down, rather than allowing them to spike as often seen in cases of type 2 diabetes.

What You Can Do

Aside from that, research on Hintonia shows that compounds from its leaves may help stop gastrointestinal damage and gastric ulcers. Considering the harsh effects of some drugs used for type 2 diabetes on the digestive system, this is yet another reason to consider adding Hintonia latiflora to a diabetes-fighting regimen, along with a low carb, paleo diet, or a ketogenic diet. These diets provide sufficient daily fats and proteins, but very few carbs, which means the body’s energy comes from using body fat and fats from the diet. These fats provide ketones, which are used for energy rather than glucose. When you essentially “train” your body to stop using glucose as its primary source of energy, you help break the addiction to sugars, carbs, and reduce your risk of diabetes. If you have diabetes or gastrointestinal issues and are looking for an alternative to help manage your condition, try adding a clinically studied Hintonia latiflora to your daily regimen and see what this remarkable herb can do for you.

 These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

December 8, 2016 at 5:49 pm Leave a comment

Is Vitamin D Related to Thyroid Disorders?

By Jen Morganti, ND, NEEDS Education Director

 One of the most common nutrient deficiencies associated with a poorly functioning thyroid is iodine. But other nutrients are also critical for a healthy thyroid. A form of thyroid disease called Hashimoto’s disease, is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack important enzymes involved in thyroid hormone production. The end result is hypothyroid symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, joint stiffness, or unexplainable weight gain.

Autoimmune diseases are typically triggered by excessive inflammation which can be caused by factors, such as food sensitivities or leaky gut problems. Nutrient deficiencies may occur and in the case of Hashimoto’s, vitamin D deficiency is common. This deficiency is acknowledged by mainstream medicine, but what is not understood is if D deficiency is the cause or result of the disease.

A study done in Greece, a region known for abundant sunshine and presumably plenty of vitamin D (via synthesis in the skin) explored the connection between vitamin D and Hashimoto’s disease. Researchers set out to investigate the number of Hashimoto’s patients who were deficient in vitamin D and to determine the outcome of replenishing the nutrient in the cases of deficiency.

Out of 218 Greek Hashimoto’s patients, the rate of vitamin D deficiency (set at <20ng/mL) was a remarkable 86%. Most of these patients were found to get plenty of daily sun exposure and shouldn’t have been deficient. So it’s plausible that their ability to convert sun exposure to vitamin D was impaired for some reason. The goal of the study was to increase vitamin D levels in the deficient patients to at least 20ng/mL. They took 1200 IU – 4000 IU vitamin D3 daily to achieve this goal.

To determine the effect of increasing vitamin D levels on the disease, anti- TPO levels were measured before and after the study. Anti-TPO antibodies are the marker for this particular autoimmune disease and higher levels indicate a more severe case of Hashimoto’s disease.

When the four month study was complete, anti-TPO antibodies decreased significantly—on average about 20%. Based on this limited study, it seems that vitamin D deficiency was at least partly the cause of Hashimoto’s. Because of their initial success, it would have been interesting to extend the study and see if continuing vitamin D supplementation dropped anti-TPO antibodies further over the course of the following year.

Vitamin D is surely not the only factor to cause Hashimoto’s disease, but it appears that being deficient in the nutrient can be one of the triggers for this autoimmune disease for those whom are predisposed. If you suffer from Hashimoto’s or have a family history of it be sure to check your D levels, but also investigate food allergies, especially gluten sensitivity, and take a good multivitamin to get the necessary co-factors for thyroid hormone production.

November 10, 2016 at 11:54 am Leave a comment

NEW RESEARCH: Healing After a Heart Attack

By Jen Morganti, ND, NEEDS Education Director

About 735,000 Americans suffer a heart attack annually, equal to about 1 every 43 seconds. About one-third of those heart attacks are not the first incident. Surviving and recovering from a heart attack (myocardial infarction or “MI”) is a major relief, but it’s not the end of the story. A heart attack can cause damage to the heart and if it doesn’t heal properly, there is risk of progressing to heart failure.

The structure and function of the heart ventricles, the two lower chambers of the heart that collect and pump out circulating blood, can be damaged from a MI. Standard pharmaceutical medications do not offer options to improve ventricle healing.

A recent study explored the possibility of fish oil being used to help the heart heal. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, MI patients took either 4 grams of omega-3 fatty acids or 4 grams of corn oil as placebo. This study lasted 6 months. At the beginning and end of the study, scientists tested the patient’s “left ventricular end-systolic volume”, which basically means the amount of blood left in the ventricle after pumping it out. A strong, healthy heart will pump out all of the blood, but residual blood in the chamber is the sign of a weaker heart.

At the end of the 6-month study, the people taking omega-3 fatty acids had a significant improvement in their heart ventricle performance as compared to those taking the placebo. The fish oil group also had a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in their blood. The researchers also noted a trend that suggested that those with the highest levels of omega-3 had the best rate of improvement in ventricle function.

Previous studies have confirmed that fish oil can be helpful for preventing cardiovascular disease in patients who have it or are at risk, but this is the first study to look specifically at how omega-3 fats can heal the heart tissue after a MI. A longer term study with ongoing fish oil supplementation would be helpful to determine if the healing prevents progression to heart failure.

REFERENCES:
Effect of Omega-3 Acid Ethyl Esters on Left Ventricular Remodeling After Acute Myocardial Infarction, Bobak Heydari, et. al. Circulation. 2016; 134:378-391, published online before print August 1, 2016.
Artham SM, Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Anand RG, O’Keefe JH, Ventura HO. Fish Oil in Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention. The Ochsner Journal. 2008; 8(2):49-60.

October 28, 2016 at 2:53 pm Leave a comment

Choline: The New Essential Nutrient

By Jennifer Morganti, ND, NEEDS Director of Education

A beneficial but lesser-known nutrient making its way onto nutrition facts labels is choline, an essential nutrient associated with heart health, improved liver function, maternal and fetal health, child development, cognition, and sports performance. In the first update to the nutrition facts label in 20 years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called for manufacturers to voluntarily label choline, paving the way to help Americans look for and include this essential nutrient as part of a balanced, healthy lifestyle.

In addition, for the first time, the FDA established a reference daily intake (RDI) for choline of 550 mg per day, which was the adequate intake (AI) amount set in 1998 by the Institute of Medicine—now the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine’s Health, and Medicine Division. Despite choline’s recognized and well-established health benefits, almost 90% of Americans are not getting enough choline every day.

“Choline is perhaps one of the most underrated nutrients, yet a large body of evidence supports a range of benefits at all life stages, from maternal health and infant nutrition to healthy aging,” said Marie Caudill, PhD, RD and professor in nutritional sciences at Cornell University. “By using the Nutrition Facts label to check choline amounts in foods, Americans will soon be able to look for this essential nutrient and better meet their daily goals.”

Food sources of choline include eggs, beef, chicken, fish, certain seafood, toasted wheat germ, brussel sprouts, and broccoli. Some multivitamins and prenatal vitamins contain choline and certain packaged foods, such as infant formula, may be fortified with choline to boost intake. Foods with at least 55 mg of choline per serving are considered a “good source” of the nutrient.

 

REFERENCES:

Excerpted from the Choline Information Council website: http://cholinecouncil.com/ latest_information/cholinelabel.

September 9, 2016 at 11:57 am Leave a comment

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